Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings
When enterococci bacteria develop resistance to one of the most commonly used antibiotics, they become vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
How common are these infections?
In the United States, VRE was responsible for an estimated 54,500 infections and 5,400 deaths among hospitalized patients in 2017.
How can you avoid getting an infection?
Patients and their caregivers should wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, clean any areas of the house that may have become contaminated with VRE, and wear gloves if they come into contact with VRE-infected bodily fluids.
How are these infections treated?
Being colonized refers to the fact that some people carry VRE on their bodies without experiencing symptoms, and they do not require antibiotics.
What is CDC doing to address VRE infections?
The CDC tracks VRE infections using data from a variety of sources, including the National Healthcare Safety Network Patient Safety Component, which collects VRE reports from device-associated infections like central-line associated bloodstream infections. The CDC collaborates with healthcare facilities, state and local health departments, and other organizations to combat resistant germ outbreaks.
What do you give for VRE?
VRE infections have traditionally been treated with doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampin in various combinations, but newer antibiotic options are now available.
Is VRE Gram positive or negative?
Enterococci are facultative anaerobic gram-positive cocci that are normally commensal organisms of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they can cause a variety of infections, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE).
What type of bacteria is VRE?
Enterococci bacteria that have developed resistance to many antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, are known as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Enterococci bacteria live in our intestines and on our skin, usually without causing problems.
What type of isolation is needed for VRE?
Standard precautions, such as hand washing and gloving, should be followed when caring for patients with VRE at home; otherwise, healthy household members are not at risk of VRE infection.
Should patients with VRE be isolated?
To prevent VRE transmission from patient to patient, implement the following isolation precautions: Place VRE-infected or colonized patients in private rooms or in the same room as other VRE-positive patients (8).
How does someone get VRE?
VRE spreads from one person to another through contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, or through person-to-person transmission, most commonly via contaminated hands; it does not spread through the air via coughing or sneezing.
Why is VRE a problem?
VRE infections typically affect people who are already sick and in the hospital, and they can be difficult to treat because doctors have fewer options for treating resistant bacteria. Some VRE infections can be life-threatening.
Where is VRE found in the body?
Enterococci are bacteria that normally live in the intestines and the female genital tract, but they can also be found in soil and water. VRE stands for vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
Is VRE a hospital acquired infection?
Preventing VRE and Other Hospital-Acquired Infections Prevention of VRE, as well as all other hospital-acquired infections, is critical. Whether you’re a patient, a caregiver, or a patient advocate, follow these steps to avoid a hospital-acquired infection.
What type of infection does VRE cause?
VRE can cause infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds associated with catheters or surgical procedures, or other body sites, with symptoms including fever and pain at the infection site, as well as swelling, redness, and discharge (pus) in wound infections.
How long can VRE survive on hands?
VRE is spread from person to person or by touching a surface that has been touched by someone who has VRE. The VRE germ can survive on hard surfaces for five to seven days and on hands for hours, making it easy to stop the spread of VRE.
Can VRE infection be cured?
In most cases, VRE infections can be cured, and the outcome is often determined by the underlying disease rather than the infecting organism. Treatment duration varies depending on the site of infection; for example, heart-valve infections may require six weeks of antibiotic therapy.
Is VRE worse than MRSA?
MRSA infections can be minor, such as pimples and boils, but serious infections, such as surgical wound infections and pneumonia, can also occur. VRE can cause infection of the urinary tract, bloodstream, or surgical wounds.
Can you catch VRE from being in the same room?
People in good health, including children, have a very low risk of contracting VRE. They can be in the same room and even casually touch or hug you.
What PPE is needed for VRE?
When entering the room of a VRE colonized/infected patient, gloves and gown must be worn; during the course of caring for a patient, a change of gloves may be required after contact with material that may contain high concentrations of VRE (e.g., stool).