15 Types of Evidence and How to Use Them in Investigations
One of the most important skills for anyone conducting investigations is the ability to gather and analyze various types of evidence. The first rule is that evidence must be relevant to the investigation; even evidence that is not admissible on its own may be admissible when combined with other pieces of evidence.
1. Analogical Evidence
Analogical evidence is the use of similar things to draw an analogy, which can be useful for increasing credibility in a workplace investigation by drawing parallels when there isn’t enough information to prove something. It’s not a form of evidence you’d use in court, but it can help you look more credible.
2. Anecdotal Evidence
Anecdotal evidence isn’t used in court, but it can be useful in a workplace investigation. The biggest problem with this type of evidence is that it is frequently “cherry picked” to present only one conclusion; use it with caution and in conjunction with other, more reliable sources of information.
3. Character Evidence
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4. Circumstantial Evidence
Indirect evidence requires a deduction of facts from other facts that can be proven and can be relevant in a workplace investigation, but it is not considered strong evidence. It can be used to infer something based on a series of facts separate from the fact the argument is trying to prove; it requires a deduction of facts from other facts that can be proven and can be relevant in a workplace investigation, but it is not considered strong evidence.
5. Demonstrative Evidence
Photographs, video and audio recordings, charts, and other types of evidence that directly demonstrate a fact are examples of demonstrative evidence. For example, in a workplace investigation, this could be an audio recording of harassing behavior or a photograph of offensive graffiti.
Challenges of digital evidence
Investigators must be able to authenticate the evidence and provide documentation to prove its integrity, which is a skill set not always required for physical evidence. Preserving digital evidence is also difficult because it can be altered or deleted remotely. Investigators must be able to authenticate the evidence and provide documentation to prove its integrity.
7. Direct Evidence
Direct evidence, such as the testimony of a witness who witnessed firsthand an incident of sexual harassment in the workplace, is the most powerful type of evidence because it does not require inference.
8. Documentary Evidence
Other types of media, such as images, video, or audio recordings, can be used as documentary evidence to prove someone’s identity and place of residence.
10. Forensic Evidence
The term “forensic” means “for the courts,” and its use in workplace investigations is generally limited to serious cases. Forensic Evidence is scientific evidence, such as DNA, trace evidence, fingerprints, or ballistics reports, that can provide proof to establish a person’s guilt or innocence.
11. Hearsay Evidence
Hearingsay evidence is statements made by witnesses who were not present at the scene of an alleged crime and is not admissible in court, but it can be relevant and valuable in a workplace investigation where the burden of proof is less stringent than in court.
12. Physical Evidence
Physical evidence, also known as “real” or “material” evidence, is evidence that takes the form of a tangible object, such as a firearm, and can be presented in court as an exhibit of a physical object captured in still or moving images.
14. Statistical Evidence
Statistical evidence is evidence that supports a point of view by using numbers (or statistics).
What is evidence in a book?
In literature, evidence can come from the text itself in order to support a critical theory, or it can be included in the text to support the author’s ideas.
What are the 4 types of evidence?
Demonstrative, real, testimonial, and documentary evidence are the four types of evidence recognized by the courts.
What are the types of evidence?
The Four Types of Proof
- Real evidence, also known as physical evidence, consists of items that a jury can see and touch, such as fingerprints, bullet casings, a knife, and DNA samples.
- Demonstrative Evidence.
- Documentary Evidence.
- Witness Testimony.
What are 3 types of evidence in writing?
In writing, there are six different types of evidence.
- Interviews with people who can tell you about a personal experience that relates to your thesis.
- A case study from a journal or your own research.
- An excerpt from a journal or letter.
What do writers use as evidence?
Numbers (for example, date and time, or any specific number or measurement: length of a boat, number of witnesses, votes for a certain bill, score of a game, etc.) Statistics (for example, date and time, or any specific number or measurement: length of a boat, number of witnesses, votes for a certain bill, score of a game, etc.)
How do you find strong evidence?
Strong evidence can take the form of statistics, studies, or quotes (from subject matter experts, articles, or reports from credible sources).
What is the strongest type of evidence?
Direct evidence is the most powerful type of evidence because it does not require inference; the evidence is proof in and of itself.
What are the 2 main types of evidence?
Direct evidence and circumstantial evidence are the two types of evidence.
What are the 7 types of evidence?
Term(s) in this collection (7)
- Personal Experience. To use a personal experience to explain or support a claim.
- Statistics/Research/Known Facts. To support your claim with accurate data.
- Hypothetical Situations.
What are the 5 types of evidence?
As discussed in this article, the court recognizes these five types of evidence.
- Any material that was used or present in the crime scene at the time of the crime is considered real evidence.
- Documentary evidence.
- Demonstrative evidence.
- Testimonial evidence.
- Digital evidence.
What are the five rules of evidence?
Admissible, authentic, complete, reliable, and believable are the five rules.
What is the Giglio rule?
The failure of the prosecution to inform the jury that a witness had been promised that he would not be prosecuted in exchange for his testimony was a breach of the duty to present all material evidence to the jury, and constituted a violation of due process, necessitating a new trial.
What is the weakest type of evidence?
So, for example, evidence-based summaries of topics and clinical practice guidelines are considered the strongest types of evidence, whereas opinions are considered the weakest form of evidence, if they are considered evidence at all.
What does good evidence look like?
It is intentional, and a conversation about its meaning and relevance has taken place; it is purposeful, designed to answer questions raised by the institution; and it has been interpreted and reflected upon, not just reviewed in its raw or unanalyzed form.
What makes a good piece of evidence?
According to Linda Dyer, there are six aspects to good evidence: accuracy, precision, sufficiency, representativeness, authority, and clarity of expression. Accuracy is one of the foundations of critical thinking and good decision-making.