What Is the Vulgate? The Beginner’s Guide
The Vulgate, a 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible by St. Jerome, was the most popular Bible translation for millennia before the KJV even existed, and many of the English words we see in modern Bibles were literally lifted from the Vulgate.
Why is it called the Vulgate?
The term “Vulgate” comes from the Latin versio vulgata, which means “common people,” and was coined by Jerome to refer to earlier Latin translations. It wasn’t until the thirteenth century that a Franciscan friar called this translation the Latin Vulgate.
Why was the Latin Vulgate written?
In 382, Pope Damasus I asked Jerome to revise the existing Latin translations of the Gospels in order to produce a standard, authoritative translation of the New Testament.
Translating the Hebrew Bible
Many New Testament authors directly quoted Jerome’s work in writing, and Saint Augustine preferred to use Jerome’s translation in public rather than his in private. Jerome translated the entire Hebrew Bible into Latin from the Septuagint, and the Christian church debated whether to rely on this ancient source or the original Hebrew.
Who helped Jerome finish the New Testament?
Most scholars believe it was written by one of Jerome’s contemporaries.
What books are included in the Vulgate?
The Vulgate is Jerome’s translation of the Bible, which includes all of the books found in Protestant Bibles, as well as a few others that were important to the church. These books are still considered apocryphal by Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, while Protestants do not.
Jerome did not translate or revise all of the books in the Vulgate; he combined Ezra and Nehemiah into a single book, as the Hebrew Bible does; he excluded the Letter of Jeremiah and Baruch as non-canonical; and he grouped the apocryphal writings of Daniel with Daniel, though Jerome marked these texts differently.
Jerome defended using the original Hebrew rather than the Septuagint. A seventeenth prologue claims that Paul wrote the Book of Hebrews, but scholars do not believe he did because Jerome disagreed with this claim. The epistles may have been revised and added to the Vulgate by the same person.
The Vulgate’s influence
The Latin Vulgate was the dominant Bible translation for over a thousand years, until William Tyndale challenged the idea that the Bible couldn’t be translated into English in the sixteenth century, and the Vulgate remained “the scholarly Bible” even after several English translations were available.
The Vulgate and the Reformation
During the Reformation, scholars preferred Jerome’s Vulgate, and even John Calvin, one of the most famous Reformers, published Latin sermons based on the Vulgate. Early English translations, such as the KJV, borrowed from Jerome to help capture the meaning of Scripture.
The Council of Trent
The Vulgate was affirmed as the official Latin Bible of the Catholic church by the Council of Trent in 1546; it was the translation that the church had been using for centuries. The council did not say that it was the official Bible or the translation of the Bible.
Wait, what was that bit about Lucifer?
The Latin Vulgate is responsible for the name Lucifer, which comes from a single verse in the Old Testament (Isaiah 14:12), in which Jerome translated the Hebrew phrase Helel ben Shahar into the Latin word lucifer.
The Latin Vulgate’s lasting legacy
For over 1,000 years, the Vulgate’s words pervaded every aspect of Western culture; it was the standard scholarly Bible throughout the seventeenth century, and much of our religious vocabulary today has its roots in Latin, just as many of the world’s languages do.
Is the Apocrypha in the Vulgate?
The Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate contain apocryphal texts that are not found in the Hebrew Bible.
Did the Latin Vulgate include the New Testament?
The remainder of the New Testament was taken from older Latin versions, which may have been slightly revised by Jerome, in 382 Pope Damasus commissioned Jerome, the leading biblical scholar of his day, to produce an acceptable Latin version of the Bible from the various translations then in use.
Which Bible version contains all the books?
From Lemuria Books comes the Holy Bible: King James Version, which includes all of the Old and New Testament books.
Why did Martin Luther remove 7 books from the Bible?
Luther attempted to remove Hebrews James and Jude from the Canon (notably, he saw them going against certain Protestant doctrines like sola gratia or sola fide) in order to make the Bible conform to his theology.
Did Jesus read the Apocrypha?
According to some, these books were kept in Catholic Bibles because it is thought that Jesus read a Bible that included the “Apocrypha,” or deuterocanonical books, and that the most popular Bible at the time was the Greek Septuagint version, which includes these extra books.
Is King James Bible Protestant?
Although the Apocrypha are not considered canonical, some Protestant Bibles, such as the original King James Version, include 14 additional books known as the Apocrypha, bringing the total number of books in the Protestant Bible to 80.
Who translated the Bible into Latin from Hebrew and Greek?
St Jerome’s goal in translating the Hebrew of the Old Testament and the Greek of the New Testament into Latin was for ordinary Christians in the Roman empire to be able to read God’s word; ‘ignorance of the scriptures is ignorance of Christ,’ he wrote.
What is the difference between the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint?
The main difference between the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint is that the Hebrew Bible is a religious text written in biblical Hebrew, whereas the Septuagint is the same text translated into Greek. The Hebrew Bible is also known as the Old Testament, Tanakh, and other names, whereas the Septuagint is known as LXX, which means seventy.
Which version of the Bible is closest to the original text?
The New American Standard Bible is a literal translation from the original texts that is well suited for study because of its accurate rendering of the source texts. It follows the style of the King James Version but uses modern English for words that have fallen out of use or whose meanings have changed.
What is the most accurate translation of the Bible in the world?
The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is widely regarded as the “most accurate” Bible translation in English; it was first published in 1963 and the most recent edition was published in 1995.
Did King James change the Bible?
In 1604, King James I of England authorized a new translation of the Bible with the goal of resolving some thorny religious differences in his kingdomu2014and solidifying his own poweru2014but in doing so, he ended up democratizing the Bible.
What books are not in the Holy Bible?
1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Book of Tobit, Book of Susanna, Additions to Esther, Book of Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, The Epistle of Jeremiah, The Prayer of Azariah, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, Book of Enoch, Book of Jubilees, Gospel of John, Ecclesiasticus,
What books are not in the Protestant Bible?
What are they? A: The Catholic Bible contains seven books that are not found in the Protestant version of the Old Testament: Baruch, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit, and Wisdom.
Which Bible has the most books in it?
The New Testament, which contains 27 books, includes the four canonical gospels, Acts of the Apostles, 21 Epistles or letters, and the Book of Revelation. The 1611 King James Bible, for example, has 80 books: 39 in the Old Testament, 14 in the Apocrypha, and 27 in the New Testament.